The sixteenth reading from the Bible study in a year is nicknamed Beshalach (בשלח), which means “When he sent.” The nickname comes from the first verse of the reading, which can be literally translated to say, “And it happened when Pharaoh sent out the people.” The reading tells the adventures of the mixed multitude of Israelites as they leave Egypt, cross the Red Sea, receive miraculous provision in the wilderness and face their first battle.
You will also find study guides by chapter and advanced study of the original languages following the Bible study outline. While it is our belief that many of the letters of the New Testament were originally written in Aramaic and/ or Hebrew, the Greek texts are used for study even when there are known Hebrew manuscripts (eg. Mathew and Hebrews).
Bible Audio & Text:
Listen to all the Bible study below or click the link to read them at biblegateway.com in your favorite translation:
- Penteteuch: Exodus 13:17-17:16
- Writings: Judges 4:4-5:31
- Prophets: Malachi 1:1-2:7
- Gospels: Mathew 5
- Letters: Acts 15
- Revelation: Revelation 15
Bible Outlines & Chapter Study Guides
- Exodus 13:17 | The Pillars of Cloud and Fire
- Exodus 14:1 | Crossing the Red Sea
- Exodus 14:26 | The Pursuers Drowned
- Exodus 15:1 | The Song of Moses
- Exodus 15:20 | The Song of Miriam
- Exodus 15:22 | Bitter Water Made Sweet
- Exodus 16:1 | Bread from Heaven
- Exodus 17:1 | Water from the Rock
- Exodus 17:8 | Amalek Attacks Israel and Is Defeated
- Jdg 4:1 | Deborah and Barak
- Jdg 5:1 | The Song of Deborah
- Mal 1:1 | Introduction
- Mal 1:2 | Israel Preferred to Edom
- Mal 1:6 | Corruption of the Priesthood
- Mathew 5 | Jerusalem Council Rules on Circumcision of New Believers
- (Greek Audio) (Interlinear)
- Acts 15:1 | Some said you cannot be saved without circumsision.
- (Greek Audio) (Interlinear)
- Revelation 15:1 | The seven angels with the seven last plagues.
- Revelation 15:3 | The song of those who overcame the beast.
- Revelation 15:7 | The seven bowls full of the wrath of God.
- (Greek Audio) (Interlinear)
Bible Study Commentary
Manna was amazing stuff. It had all the nutrition necessary to sustain a large population for forty years. It appeared every morning and in an adequate amount so that no one went hungry. It could be cooked, boiled or baked. However, it could not be stored. If anyone tried to hoard it, it turned rancid overnight. Manna can teach us about money and materialism. God provides the bounty of the material world for our welfare. He provides adequately for our needs, sometimes in scarcity, sometimes with abundance, but always with sufficiency. “He who had gathered much had no excess, and he who had gathered little had no lack” (Exodus 16:18). When we try to hoard wealth, though, it can turn into something spiritually ugly. Just as the manna turned rancid and wormy, hoarded wealth sickens the soul. It causes us to cling to material things. We no longer need to rely on God because we can rely upon our savings and investments. We no longer need to pray for our daily bread, as Yeshua taught us to do. As Yeshua warned us, “Truly I say to you, it is hard for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 19:23).
Not that there is any special merit in being poor. But it is much more difficult to be affluent and keep your spiritual footing. The wealthy disciple must exercise constant vigilance against the deceits of wealth. He must keep his hand open and generous, and he must be able to lay it all aside for the sake of the kingdom.
Believe in God, Believe also in Me
Believing in God is one thing. Lots of people believe in God. The real question is, “Do you believe in Moses?” That’s a different matter altogether. Israel’s moment of personal faith occurred on the shore of the Red Sea. After they saw Pharaoh’s army destroyed and the deliverance God gave them through Moses, they fully placed their faith in God, and in His servant Moses.
The Bible says that “they feared the LORD,” meaning they understood that He punishes the wicked and rewards the righteous. It says “they believed in the LORD,” meaning they had faith in His saving power. It also says that they believed “in His servant Moses,” meaning that they now had faith in Moses as the agent sent by God. These statements summarize the Torah’s prescription for saving faith.
Belief in Moses implies more than simple theism. To believe in God is one thing, but to believe in Moses requires believing in God as He revealed Himself through the Torah of Moses. Many people believe in God, but not so many believe the Torah. Not many people believe in God as He is revealed through Moses. This is why the Mechilta, an ancient commentary on Exodus, says, “One who believes in Moses believes in God.” One who believes in the Bible believes in more than just a vague sense of higher power; he believes in the God of the Bible.
Jesus/ Yeshua made a similar statement to His disciples, “Do not let your heart be troubled; believe in God, believe also in Me” (John 14:1). Just as they had previously placed their faith in God, they need also to place their faith in Him as God’s agent of salvation. Just as Israel believed in Moses, the disciples needed to believe in Yeshua, the prophet like Moses. This faith in Yeshua is the critical distinction of a believer’s life. We find that many people today are willing to confess faith in God, but they seem embarrassed to confess faith in Yeshua. We are called “believers” because we believe in Yeshua. We find salvation in Him because we place our faith in Him. We believe in God as He is revealed through the teaching and person of Yeshua.
Moses saved the children of Israel from Egypt, from Pharaoh, and from the Red Sea. Yeshua saves us from sin, from Satan, and from death, and He will bring us into the redemption and the kingdom.
In the Hebrew Scriptures there are hidden aleph-tav’s [את] that aren’t usually translated into English. But they are very enlightening when we read them in the Hebrew. These are the ones we find in this week’s study:
As we have seen that Joseph’s life was a type and foreshadow of Y’shua the Messiah because he saved את Children of Israel. As the Israelites depart from Egypt in Ex 13:19 they carry את bones of Joseph and notice the את in front of bones twice. In Ex 14:4-5 it is את who hardens Pharaoh’s heart to chase after את Israel so that the Egyptian army may be completely destroyed. Now when the Israelites see Pharaoh’s army they become fearful but Moses states in Ex 14:13 to Fear Not and Stand Still and see אֶת־ salvation (Yeshuwah) of יהוה. Again a perfect picture of the Yah-head, יהוה Father working through את Y’shua as ONE and they work the same way today.
In Ex 14:16 and 21 we see it is את hand that parts the waters of the Red Sea and Ex 14:25 it is את hand that causes the wheels of their chariots to fall off and Ex 14:26-28 את hand that closes the Red Sea.
Ex 14:30-31 states that all Israel saw את work greatly that day and they feared את. In Ex 16:7 as the Israelites begin to suffer in the wilderness and murmur; Moses warns them that את hears their murmurings against יהוה.
Now in Ex 16:31 the first time the Israelites see Manna from heaven they call it את his name Manna. (Note: the Hebrew word for ‘name’ in verse 31 is shem and over 70 times is rendered ‘his name’ when spelled the exact same way as in verse 31) So the verse could read, ‘they called it את His name Manna’. Confirmation that את is represented in the Manna is in Ex 16:23 which states that the Manna they baked and broiled in the wilderness is את and in Ex 16:35 it states that they ate את Manna for 40 years. The את Manna Father gave in the wilderness feed them physically and was a type and foreshadow of את Bread of Life that יהוה Father gives to all those who receive את Jesus/ Yeshua as Messiah who gives the promise to inherit Eternal Life (John 6:31-40) and those who eat His body and drink His blood will never hunger or thirst spiritually.
Ex 17:2-7 states that the Israelites were actually tempting both את and יהוה with their murmuring.
Bible Study for Kids
It’s sometimes hard to make the Old Testament fun for kids. Try these Children’s activities:
For Deeper Language Learning
Hebrew “Word of the Week” by Hebrew4Christians.com
Greek “Greek of the Week”
As Israel emerged from the sea, like a newborn nation, Amalek attacked them at their weakest point. Defending the Hebrews, Moshe (Moses) waged spiritual war above, while Yehoshua waged physical war below,
“Then Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim. Moshe said to Yehoshua, ‘Choose men for us, and go out, fight with Amalek.” Tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in my hand. So Yehoshua did as Moshe had told him, and fought with Amalek; and Moshe, Aharon, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. It happened, when Moshe held up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. But Moshe’s hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat on it. Aharon and Hur held up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side. His hands were steady until sunset. Yehoshua defeated Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword. HaShem said to Moshe, ‘Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Yehoshua: that I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under the sky. Moshe built an altar, and called its name ‘HaShem Nissi’ (HaShem our Banner.) He said, “HaShem has sworn: HaShem will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.” Exodus 17:8-16
Within this passage, there are many incredible secrets and lessons concealed. The Kol HaTor, written by R’ Hillel Shklover (the grand-nephew of the Vilna Gaon) comments,
“Every act of the beginning of Redemption must be in accord with the verse “walk modestly with your God,” as revealed in the words, “place it in the ears of Joshua,” who was in line the line of Mashiach ben Yosef.” Kol HaTor 1:14, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist
Yehoshua bin Nun was the Mashiach ben Yosef of his generation and his war with Amalek is a key mission. The passage read on Shabbat Zachor (the ‘Sabbath of Remembrance’, immediately preceding Purim) illuminates this,
“Remember what Amalek did to you by the way as you came forth out of Egypt; how he met you by the way, and struck the hindmost of you, all who were feeble behind you, when you were faint and weary; and he did not fear God. Therefore it shall be, when HaShem your God has given you rest from all your enemies all around, in the land which HaShem your God gives you for an inheritance to possess it, that you shall blot out the memory of Amalek from under the sky; you shall not forget.” Deuteronomy 25:17-19
Who or what is Amalek that its name and memory should be blotted out from under the heavens? Why is Amalek different from other nations who opposed Israel. As said above, these evil forces attacked Israel at its weakest point, allowing the warriors who lead the camps forward to pass, and waited to attack the elderly, women and children. If you look at the state of the world today, it is they who are still suffering the most. Amalek is not simply a nation that existed 3500 years ago, it is a spiritual force that is active today. R’ Moshe Alshich says,
“We need to recall that a nation is not really defeated until its spiritual representative in the celestial regions has been defeated. . . Since G’d loves Israel and hates Amalek, destroying Amalek should have been the simplest task for G’d. But He has to destroy its celestial representative first. It is we who prevent G’d from being able to do so, due to our sins.” The Midrash of R’ Moshe Alshich on the Torah, translated by Eliyahu Munk, Lambda Publishers, Volume 2, pg 465-466
Dr. Tsvi Sadan says,
“The war “Joshua” wages against Amalek, according to HaGra, happens on three planes: war against “Amalek of the heart,” which is the evil inclination and evil qualities; war against “Spiritual Amalek,” which is Satan, whose central force is at the gates of Jerusalem; and war against “physical Amalek,” represented by the descendants of Esau, Ishmael and the mixed multitude.” The Concealed Light, Dr. Tsvi Sadan, Vine of David, pg. 110
What is your weakest point? Everyone has a chink in their armor, mentally, physically or spiritually. Is that where you get attacked the most? Incredibly, the gematria of Amalek is 240, linking it to the word “Safek,” which means “doubt.” Amalek is doubt. This readily implies that Amalek’s army is beyond the physical world.
Deuteronomy 21:10–25:19 opens with the words,
“When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and HaShem your God delivers him into your hands….” Deuteronomy 21:10
Yanki Tauber says,
“When you go out to war on your enemies, and G-d will place him in your hands…” No, that’s not a typo. . . The wording of the Written Torah is extremely precise. When a grammatical anomaly appears – such as plural “enemies” who turn mid-sentence into a singular “him”- the midrashim and commentaries will immediately step in to unearth the story behind the story and reveal the hidden lesson.” Yanki Tauber, Our Enemies, Ourselves, Chabad.org
According to the Alshich, the Amalek within is the yetzer hara, the evil inclination, and we must wage spiritual war against sin. It is this spiritual war that Mashiach ben Yosef fights, as the Kol HaTor says,
“(Deut. 32:7) “remember the days of old, understand the years of generation after generation” – This refers to the first Mashiach who fights Amalek in an eternal war. The Lord wages war against Amalek in generation after generation. That is the mission of Joshua who was Mashiach ben Yosef.” Kol HaTor 1:44, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist
Noting that Amalek was the grandson of Esav, R’ Daniel Krentzman explains,
“One of the main aspects of Mashiach ben Yosef’s mission is the war with Amalek (see Kol HaTor, chapter 2.) Amalek is the seed of Eisav and the main continuation of his negative spiritual legacy; primarily, the denial of the belief in G-d and of the eternity of the soul. Eisav denied Olam Habah and Techiat HaMaitim (Bava Batra 16) in contrast to Yosef who remained firm in his belief in Olam Habah and Techiat HaMaitim (see Bereishit 50:24.)” R’ Daniel Krentzman, Moshiach ben Yosef & Yehoshua
The root of Amalek extends before Esav. Amalek’s root actually extends backward to the garden of Eden,
“Now the serpent was more subtle than any animal of the field which HaShem Elokim had made. He said to the woman, Has God really said, ‘You shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’” Genesis 3:1
The spiritual representative of Amalek first implanted doubt, and after Adam and Eve ate of the tree, they hid themselves. HaShem asked,
“God said, Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree (המן) that I commanded you not to eat from?” Genesis 3:11
The Talmud comments on this verse, and its connection to Amalek through its descendant Haman, who in the book of Esther attempted to destroy the Jewish nation,
“Where is Haman indicated in the Torah? In the verse: Is it [hamin] from the tree?” Chullin 139b, Soncino Press Edition
R’ Ari Kahn comments,
“More than the meaning of the name Haman, the Talmud looks for the ideological roots of such evil. How is such a personality formed? The Gemara looks beyond his grandfather Agag, beyond his great-great grandfather Amalek, beyond his forefather Esav, and looks even further back, to our first and deadliest adversary, the Serpent who encouraged man to eat from the Tree of Knowledge, even if – or precisely because – the price was death.” R. Ari Kahn, M’oray HaAish: Parshat Zachor: Purim 5769, Aish.com
Rebbe Nachman says,
“Amalek is the foremost power of evil. Only God can quash this evil completely, and He will do so only in the time of Mashiach.” Rebbe Nachman’s Torah, Parashat Beshalach, Breslov Research Institute, pg. 136
YEHOSHUA BIN NUN
As Amalek drew his power of doubt from the root of Esav, and from his celestial representative, so also does Yehoshua draw his faith from the power of Yosef, and his spiritual Representative,
“Similarly, Yehoshua, as Mashiach ben Yosef, drew spiritual strength from this aspect of Yosef, removing the “ruach hatumah” from the land. This was achieved by conquering and subjugating the Canaanite kings and nations, removing their power and influence to the extent that he could (see Yehoshua 12.)” R’ Daniel Krentzman, Moshiach ben Yosef & Yehoshua
It should not be surprising that Yehoshua bin Nun is linked to Mashiach ben Yosef. Yehoshua himself is from the tribe of Ephraim, a descendant of Yosef. He is appointed to succeed Moshe in the mission of Redemption,
“Moses spoke to YHVH, saying, ‘Let YHVH the God of the spirits of all flesh, appoint a man over the congregation, who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of YHVH not be as sheep which have no shepherd. YHVH said to Moses, ‘Take Yehoshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the Spirit, and lay your hand on him; and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and commission him in their sight…” Numbers 27:15-23
The phrase, “a man in whom is the Spirit” links Yehoshua to Yosef, as it is said,
“Pharaoh said to his servants, Can we find such a one as this, a man in whom is the Spirit of God?” Genesis 41:38
Yehoshua was 110 years old when he died,
“It happened after these things, that Yehoshua the son of Nun, the servant of YHVH, died, being one hundred and ten years old.” Joshua 24:29, cf Judges 2:8
As was Joseph,
“So Joseph died, being one hundred ten years old, and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.” Genesis 50:26
Kol HaTor comments,
“The sound [voice] of the turtledove – This is the voice of Joshua in the line of Mashiach ben Yosef. Moshe Rabbeinu was in this line until the Torah was given, which is revealed in the words “and Moshe took the bones of Yosef with him” (according to the Gaon’s hints equals 747, Moshe son of Amram in gematria.)” Kol HaTor 2:144, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist
The word for “bones” and “essence” shares the same shoresh (root) in Hebrew. Yehoshua had the atzmut (essence) of Yosef. Exodus then describes Yehoshua, the faithful servant of Moshe, as never departing from the Tent,
וְדִבֶּר יי אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְשָׁרְתֹו יְהֹושֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן נַעַר לֹא יָמִישׁ מִתֹּוךְ הָאֹהֶל׃
“YHVH spoke to Moshe face to face, as a man speaks to his friend. He turned again into the camp, but his servant Yehoshua, the son of Nun, a young man (na’ar), didn’t depart out of the Tent.” Exodus 33:11
Kol HaTor comments on the phrase “naar”,
“A youth” — (Gen. 37:2) “and he was a youth” – Four individuals were given the appellation ’ youth’: Yosef, Joshua, Metatron, and David.” Kol HaTor 2:94, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist
The title “naar” (youth) is a title for the Angel of HaShem. Kol HaTor continues,
“…the Mashiach ben Yosef from above is Metatron, the Minister of Interior; as is known, Yosef is Metatron.” Kol HaTor 1:20, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist
Incredibly, like Yosef, Moshe, Yehoshua, David, Yeshua is called “naar”,
“When he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom of the feast, and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy (naar) Yeshua stayed behind in Jerusalem.” Luke 2:42-43
Yehoshua waged the wars of YHVH,
“It happened, when all the kings who were beyond the Jordan, in the hill country, and in the lowland, and on all the shore of the great sea in front of Lebanon, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard of it that they gathered themselves together to fight with Joshua and with Israel, with one accord.” Joshua 9:1-2
This verse is echoed by the book of Revelation,
“And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.” Revelation 19:19
Like Yehoshua, Yeshua stayed in the Temple, was appointed Shepherd over the people, and waged a spiritual war against the impure spirits in the land, and will wage war again to rescue his people from that nations that follow the spirit of Amalek. These parallels open a doorway into understanding an amazing secret.
YEHOSHUA BELOW, MOSHE ABOVE
As Moshe wages spiritual war above, Aaron and Hur flank him on the right and the left holding his hands “steady.” While his hands are elevated, Amalek is defeated. This is connected to the serpent on the pole, where Israel looked up to heaven, they would be healed. Interestingly, the word for “steady” in Hebrew is emunah, which means “faith”:
וִידֵי מֹשֶׁה כְּבֵדִים וַיִּקְחוּ־אֶבֶן וַיָּשִׂימוּ תַחְתָּיו וַיֵּשֶׁב עָלֶיהָ וְאַהֲרֹן וְחוּר תָּֽמְכוּ בְיָדָיו מִזֶּה אֶחָד וּמִזֶּה אֶחָד וַיְהִי יָדָיו אֱמוּנָה עַד־בֹּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃
“But Moshe’s hands were heavy, and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur held up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side. His hands were steady (emunah) until sunset.” Exodus 17:12
The war between Moshe/Yehoshua and Amalek is one of faith and doubt. Faith is the foundation of the entire Torah (Makkot 24a) . This is a war that is fought everyday, in the world outside and the universe within. The prophet Habakkuk says,
“…the righteous will live by his faith.” Habakkuk 2:4
R’ Daniel Krentzman explains that this links to Mashiach ben Yosef,
“Another hint to Yosef HaTzaddik’s personification of emunah (faith) is the pasuk in Chabakuk (2:4): “Tzaddik B’Emunato Yichyeh” “A Tzaddik will live in his faith,” the central characteristic of the Tzaddik, Yosef, is faith. For every negative spiritual force that G-d brings into the world, there is a counter force from the side of holiness, with the potential to overcome it. . . Amalek, the extension of Eisav, is confronted and fought by Mashiach ben Yosef, the extension of Yosef HaTzaddik.” R’ Daniel Krentzman, Moshiach ben Yosef & Yehoshua
Rebbe Nachman says,
“We must spread faith through the entire body so that it reaches even the extremities – i.e., the hands. Then, when a person elevates his hands in prayer, he lifts up his prayers. One who prays properly can invoke the power of salvation, such as that associated with Mashiach.” Rebbe Nachman’s Torah, Parashat Beshalach, Breslov Research Institute, pg. 136
Moshe is on top of the hill with the Rod of God in his hand. The Zohar says,
“The Rod of God is Mattatron.” Zohar I:262, Zohar.com
Rebbe Nachman comments on the mateh (staff),
“If he violates the Torah, he drinks from the bitterness of the Tree of Evil, which is the Evil Inclination…but if he repents, it is said of him: “God showed him a tree” – the Tree of Life – through which “the water turned sweet” (Exodus 15:25). This is Moshe-Mashiach, of whom it is said: “with the mateh (staff) of God in my hand ” (Exodus 17:9). MaTeh is MeTat, from whom comes life and also death.” Likutey Moharan 79:3, Breslov Research Institute, pg 165
The Zohar reveals the identity of the Rod of Moshe in a jaw dropping statement,
“…the staff given to you will be a Tree of Life – denoting Vav, which is the son of Yud Hei.” Zohar, Exodus, Misphatim 384, Zohar.com
Moshe is on top of the hill, his hands lifted up, with a wooden beam between his hands. He is flanked on the right and the left, by Aaron and Hur. The book of Luke says,
When they came to the place that is called The Skull, they crucified him there with the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left. Luke 23:33
The word “Gulgalta” is significant in Jewish mysticism, as the Zohar says,
וּמֵהַאי טַלָּא דְּגוּלְגַּלְתָּא דָּא, טַחֲנִין מָנָא לְצַדִּיקַיָּיא לְעָלְמָא דְּאָתֵי, וּבֵיהּ זְמִינִין מֵתַיָּיא לַאֲחַיָּיא
“From the dew in this skull (Gulgalta) manna is ground for the righteous for the World to Come, and through it the dead shall be revived.” Zohar, Ha’azinu 117, Zohar.com
The three execution stakes formed three pillars at the place of the Skull, with the Son in the middle. This mirrors the arrangement of the Sefirot and echoes Moshe on top of the hill battling against Amalek. Even ancient believers commented on these parallels in the Epistle of Barnabas.
THE DEATH OF MASHIACH BEN YOSEF
One of the foundational texts to study the death of Mashiach ben Yosef is Zechariah 12:10,
“And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on me, on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.” Zechariah 12:10
The Gemara comments on this passage,
“What is the cause of the mourning [mentioned in the last cited verse]? — R. Dosa and the Rabbis differ on the point. One explained, ‘The cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Joseph’, and the other explained, ‘The cause is the slaying of the Evil Inclination (yetzer hara)’. It is well according to him who explains that the cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Joseph, since that well agrees with the Scriptural verse, “And they shall look upon me because they have thrust him through, and they shall mourn for him as one mourns for his only son…” Sukkah 52a, Soncino Press Edition
R’ Tzadok HaKohen of Lublin (1823 CE – 1900) writes in his work, Poked Akarim, Letter Hei,
ומשיח בן יוסף המוחה כל זכר עמלק, שיהיה נקי לגמרי, סוף נהרג על ידי גוג ומגוג. ונאמר עליו (זכריה י”ב, י’) והביטו אשר דקרו כמו שאמרו ז”ל בסוכה (נ”ב). משמע פשטיה כאילו ישראל דקרוהו. והיינו דמצד עצמו ודאי היה משפטו שלא למות כלל, רק לפי שלא נהפך למלאך כאליהו, ויש לו חיבור עם שאר בני אדם מישראל להיות יחד קומה שלימה דכנסת ישראל שבאותו דור. והם לא ניקו לגמרי, על כן הוכרח ליהרג לכפר על בני ישראל
רבי צדוק הכהן מלובלין זי”ע ספר פוקד עקרים אות ה
“They will look upon him whom they pierced’ means literally that Israel pierced him, although legally speaking he did not deserve to die…since his generation was not clean; however, he had to be killed in order to atone for the people of Israel…and by killing him comes the slaying of the evil inclination from the hearts of all the people of Israel.” Poked Akarim, Letter Heh – cited in The Concealed Light, “Pierced”, Tsvi Sadan, pg 49
And yet, the Kol HaTor implies that Mashiach ben Yosef will not die,
“(Ps. 116:6) “I was brought low, and He saved me” — King David, of blessed memory, said this prayer to save Mashiach ben Yosef so that the latter would not die, as explained by the Gaon is his work . Mashiach ben Yosef is in the line of Joshua bin Nun. Kol HaTor 1:27, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist
The one sure thing in the Gemara we are told about Mashiach ben Yosef is that he will die. And yet, in Jewish tradition, we are told that Mashiach ben Yosef will live! The message of the Kol HaTor about Mashiach ben Yosef being alive is perhaps the central principle of Kol HaTor,
“Yosef is still alive.” The basic approach of the Gaon is encapsulated in the principle “Yosef is still alive,” meaning that the Mashiach ben Yosef is still alive and will live, because, as it is written, every aspect of the beginning of the Redemption is dependent on him…” Kol HaTor 1.6, translated by R’ Yechiel bar Lev and K. Skaist, pg. 5
SALVATION – YESHUAH
The book of Isaiah says,
מַה־נָּאווּ עַל־הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלֹום מְבַשֵּׂר טֹוב מַשְׁמִיעַ יְשׁוּעָה אֹמֵר לְצִיֹּון מָלַךְ אֱלֹהָיִךְ
“How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of him who brings good news, who publishes peace (shalom), who brings good news, who publishes salvation (yeshuah), who says to Zion, Your God reigns!” Isaiah 52:7
This is the beautiful song of Mah Navu. Take note that the word for “Good News” is the same as “Gospel.” The word salvation is “yeshuah.” Notice that it says that the feet of him bringing the Good news. Since the word “feet” is plural, this indicates that it will happen in two stages,
“(Isa. 52:7) “he announces salvation” — In that chapter, we find the words “the footsteps of the herald, ” which refer to both meshichim. But the verse, “he announces salvation, ” is written in the singular form because it refers to Mashiach ben Yosef. This is so, because whenever salvation during the footsteps of Mashiach appears, it refers to the mission of Joshua bin Nun and the mission of Mashiach ben Yosef. This is explained by the Gaon in his commentary on the verse “I will bear the cup of salvation.” Kol HaTor 2:81, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist
Kol HaTor makes a fascinating statement,
“wherever the term “salvation” appears, it connotes that characteristic of Mashiach ben Yosef.” Kol HaTor 2:2, 100, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist
“Yehoshua the son of Nun, who stands before you, he shall go in there: encourage you him; for he shall cause Israel to inherit it…So Yehoshua took the whole land, according to all that HaShem spoke to Moshe, and Yehoshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. The land had rest from war.” Deuteronomy 1:38, Joshua 11:23
In the Siddur, during the Amidah in the Birkat David, we pray,
“Return in mercy to Jerusalem Your city and dwell therein as You have promised; speedily establish therein the throne of David Your servant, and rebuild it, soon in our days, as an everlasting edifice. Blessed are You L-rd, who rebuilds Jerusalem. Speedily cause the scion of David Your servant to flourish, and increase his power by Your salvation, for we hope for Your salvation all day. Blessed are You L-rd, who causes the power of salvation (keren yeshuah, literally “horn of salvation”) to flourish.” The Amidah, cited at Chabad.org
Kol HaTor comments,
“equals Mashiach ben Efraim” . Likewise the value of “horn of salvation,” is 741 in gematria, and, according to the Gaon, this refers to Mashiach ben Efraim…“the horn of salvation” — This refers to Mashiach ben Efraim, and equals it in gematria (741). See above (#125) on the aspect “a righteous sprout, ” and further on (#138) on the aspect “a scepter has risen in Israel.” Kol HaTor 1.22, 2:135, translated by R’ Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist
Yehoshua’s original name was actually Hoshea,
“Of the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea the son of Nun…These are the names of the men who Moshe sent to spy out the land. Moshe called Hoshea the son of Nun Yehoshua.” Numbers 13:8, 16
While Avraham, Sarah and Yosef (Psalm 81:6) received the letter Hei to their names, Yehoshua received the letter Yud. The letter Yud is on a higher level than the letter Hei. Based on the Hebrew of Genesis 2:4, it is said that HaShem created this world with the letter Hei, and the World to Come with the letter Yud. However, knowing that not a single letter in the Torah can be created or destroyed, where did his new Yud come from? According to the Talmud, it came from Sarah,
“The [single] yod which I removed from Sarai continuously cried out [in protest] for many years until Yehoshua came and I added it to his name, as it is written, “And Moshe called Hoshea the son of Nun, Yehoshua.” Sanhedrin 107a, Soncino Press Edition
R’ Ovadiah ben Yaakov Sforno (c. 1475 – 1550) comments,
“(The verse) states that he was known in his tribe as a man of strength by the name Hoshea (הושע). (Now) the (reason) he is called Joshua (יהושע) is because Moshe our Teacher called him thus as a (mark) of honor, and also to pray for him that he be saved (from the plot of the spies) and that he should save others.” Sforno, Parashas Shelach, Mesorah Publishing Ltd., pg. 709
The Artscroll commentary says,
“Since the name יהושע is “piel” (the grammatical intensive form), the Sforno interprets it to mean that not only should he be saved, but he should also save others.”
It is incredible that, according to Kol HaTor, Mashiach ben Yosef is connected to the word “yeshuah.” In the book of Nehemiah, Yehoshua bin Nun is called “Yeshua,”
“All the assembly of those who had come again out of the captivity made booths, and lived in the booths; for since the days of Yeshua (ישוע) the son of Nun to that day the children of Israel had not done so. There was very great gladness.” Nehemiah 8:17
When Moshe renamed Hoshea to Yehoshua, it revealed the name of the one who would complete the Redemption and cause Israel to inherit the Land. As Yehoshua was called ‘Yeshua’, so will the Mashiach ben Yosef be named “Yeshua,” as it is said,
“You shall call his name Yeshua, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins.” Matthew 1:21