This Week

Study and Test the Entire Bible in a Year, Every Year
– Week 39 –


This week’s “Bible in a year” study is named from the word chukat (חוקת) which means “statute.” The name is derived from the second verse of the reading:

“This is the statute of the law which the LORD has commanded” (Numbers 19:2).

Chukat presents the mysterious laws of the red-heifer ceremony for purification after contact with human death. This reading also contains the story of Moses striking the rock, the stories of the deaths of Aaron and Miriam and the wars with the Amorites. The study concludes in Judges with the host of Israel encamping on the edge of the Promised Land.

. . . . Continue the Scripture study below.

You will also find study guides by chapter and advanced study of the original languages [including from ancient Jewish and Christian writings] following the Bible study outlines and Biblical texts. While it is our belief that many of the letters of the New Testament were originally written in Aramaic and/ or Hebrew, the Greek texts are used for study even when there are known Hebrew manuscripts (eg. Mathew and Hebrews).

This Week’s Bible Audio, Outlines & Study Guides

Penteteuch/ Torah
Red Heifer and Cleansing Water

  • English Text/ Audio: Numbers 19:1-22:1 
  • Hebrew Interlinear and audio
    • Numbers 19:1 | Ceremony of the Red Heifer
    • Numbers 20:1 | The Waters of Meribah
    • Numbers 20:14 | Passage through Edom Refused
    • Numbers 20:22 | The Death of Aaron
    • Numbers 21:1 | The Bronze Serpent
    • Numbers 21:10 | The Journey to Moab
    • Numbers 21:21 | King Sihon Defeated
    • Numbers 21:33 | King Og Defeated

Prophets & Writings
Jephthah’s Valor and Vow

Gospels & Letters
The day of preparation for Passover

  • English Text/ Audio: John 19 
  • Greek Interlinear and Audio
    • John 10 | Instructions to the Twelve
  • English Text/ Audio: Hebrews 13 
  • Greek Interlinear and Audio
    • Hebrews 13 | Yeshua also suffered outside the gate (like the Red Heifer)

This Week’s Bible Study Commentary

In Numbers 19, the Pentateuch/ Torah gives the laws for preparing the ashes of the red heifer. The red heifer is an unusual sacrifice which was slaughtered and burned outside of the Tabernacle (just like Jesus/ Yeshua). Its ashes were then collected and mixed with water (just like in the law of Jealousy we learned about in Numbers 5). The water was sprinkled in a purification ceremony which removed ritual uncleanness engendered by contact with death.

Paradoxically, the preparation of the red heifer renders each person involved unclean. The priest who oversees the slaughter and the burning becomes unclean and incurs first degree impurity. The man who ignites the fire becomes unclean. The man who gathers the ashes together is rendered unclean. Moreover, the one who sprinkles the water of cleansing to remove the impurity of corpse contamination incurs first degree impurity. The sages speak of the paradox as an inexplicable decree of the Almighty:

“Who decreed this? Was it not … God? We have learned that all the people engaged in preparing the water of the ashes of the red heifer, from beginning to end, defile garments, while the heifer itself makes garments ritually clean. The Holy One, blessed is He, says, “I have laid down a statute; I have issued a decree! You cannot transgress My decree.” Numbers Rabbah 19:1

The same paradox is also present in the rituals of Yom Kippur. After completing the purification ceremony of Yom Kippur, the high priest needed to immerse again. Similarly, the man who released the goat into the wilderness needed to immerse before returning to the camp, and the priest who oversaw the burning of the carcasses of the sin offerings needed to immerse himself before returning to the camp.

The purification paradox hints toward Messiah who became unclean in order to cleanse!

That is not to say the He sinned, being unclean is not a sin. To save others from death He died, became a corpse- that is, became something unclean. Yeshua took on mortal uncleanness by virtue of His human birth. He took on human uncleanness by virtue of His healing ministry in our midst. He took on the uncleanness, the iniquity, the transgression, and sin of Judah and Israel Himself. He took on the contaminating impurity of death itself, in order to cleanse us from sin and death. He did not remain long in a state of ritual impurity. Human uncleanness and iniquity did not cling to Him. He stepped out from the tomb in perfect purity. He shed the mortal form, and with it He shed ritual impurity. The unclean grave clothes, tainted with the contamination of death, He left behind.

The writer of the book of Hebrews specifically mentions in Hebrews 9:13-14 the ashes of the red heifer. What is more, he attributes efficacy to them as regards cleansing the flesh. The passage compares the blood of Messiah to the ashes of the red heifer. If the ashes of the red heifer work on the outside (the flesh), how much more so does the blood of Messiah work on the inside (the conscience) from sin:

For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled sanctify for the cleansing of the flesh, how much more will the blood of Messiah, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? (Hebrews 9:13-14)

Just as Yeshua was crucified outside the Temple grounds, the Red Heifer is taken outside the camp. The Levites who had the Romans do their dirty work watched as they crucified a man who had done no wrong, and they have His blood on their hands and became unclean, just as the Eleazar became unclean after having the Red Heifer killed before his eyes and sprinkled its blood seven times before the Tabernacle of the Congregation.

Even the priest who burned the Red Heifer became unclean, just like the Roman soldiers became unclean for beating, whipping and crucifying an innocent man. The man who then gathers up the ashes also becomes unclean just as those who took Yeshua off the stake and wrapped His body and placed it into the tomb. The combination of cedar wood, hyssop and scarlet combined with the ashes of the Red Heifer create the Water for Purification of Sin (red lye soap), was a type and foreshadow of the death, burial and resurrection of Yeshua providing atonement of Sin.

Just as Yeshua was completely consumed outside the camp so to was the Red Heifer consumed by fire to ashes. With the bathing of the soap a man becomes physically and ritually clean. Isaiah 1:18 though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow…it all makes a perfect picture of our redemption provided by Yeshua on Calvary that qualified Him as our Messiah.

This Week’s Hidden Aleph-Tav’s

In the Hebrew Scriptures there are hidden aleph-tav’s [את] that aren’t usually translated into English. But they are very enlightening when we read them in the Hebrew, especially because Jesus/ Yeshua said He WAS the aleph-tav. The את identifies covenant peoples, persons, places, things and titles pertaining to the ownership of property by יהוה Father through את Yeshua our Messiah. As you move through the Laws of Liberty (Torah) notice where the את is placed and where it is not placed. Paul declares in Romans 7:12 the TORAH (nomos) is Holy and the Commandments are Holy (Set apart), Righteous (Just) and Good (of Benefit). Following are the aleph-tav’s [את] we find in this week’s study:

Num 19:1-10 is concerning the way to kill the את Red Heifer to create the Water for Purification of Sin from the את ashes of the heifer. Again the placement of the את gives insight into a deeper understanding that even the ritual of the preparation of the ashes are a type and foreshadow of events Yeshua would fulfill as Messiah on Calvary.

Bible Study for Kids

It’s sometimes hard to make the Old Testament fun for kids. Try these Children’s stories:

RTM Children

For Deeper Language & Learning

Hebrew “Word of the Week” by Hebrew4Christians.com     “Greek of the Week

In this section, we appeal to all believers to dig DEEP into the Bible, as well as the commentaries of the “Jewish sages” and “church fathers”. We point out Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic texts of Scripture including what has been found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. We search through many historical writings and even compare other religions to the Bible in an appeal for unity in Truth and exposing the error in all religions. We have hundreds of resources in our free app so that people can see for themselves what these ancients texts say rather than depending on a preacher.

”Solomon said: Concerning all these [ordinances of the Torah] I have stood and investigated [their meaning], but the chapter of the Red Heifer I have been unable to fathom. When I labored therein and searched deeply into it, ‘I said, I will get wisdom, but it was far from me.” Kohelet Rabbah 7:36, Soncino Press Edition

Chukkat (Numbers 19:1–22:1) contains incredibly deep mysteries, from the Rock that brings forth water, the Snake upon a pole to the פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה, Parah Adumah, the Red Heifer. This animal is incredibly special, as it is the necessary component to re-institute the Temple services. The word “Chukkat” itself is fascinating, referring to a class of mitzvot whose explanation and purpose are not self-evident. R’ Ari Kahn cites Rashi,

“This is the statute of the Torah: Because Satan and the nations of the world taunt Israel, saying, “What is this commandment, and what purpose does it have?” Therefore, the Torah uses the term “statute (chok),” [as if to say,] I have decreed it; you have no right to challenge it. (Rashi, B’midbar 19:2)” R’ Ari Kahn, Chukat, An Enigma Wrapped in Riddle, Aish.com 

According to the Midrash Rabbah cited above, the explanation of the Red Heifer mystified even King Solomon! We will attempt to the scratch the surface of the ritual of the Red Heifer. We may ask, if King Solomon could not penetrate this concept, how could we be so arrogant to attempt such an endeavor? The answer is that we live in an era where the wellsprings of knowledge are breaking forth upon the world. Moreover, we are standing on the shoulders of giants, and can peer deeper into the Scriptures than ever before, with the keys provided by the Sages of old. Chukkat opens,

“This is the statute (chukkat) of the law which YHVH has commanded: Speak to the children of Israel, that they bring you a red heifer without spot, in which is no blemish, and which was never yoked. You shall give her to Eleazar the priest, and he shall bring her forth outside of the camp, and one shall kill her before his face: and Eleazar the priest shall take of her blood with his finger, and sprinkle her blood toward the front of the Tent of Meeting seven times. One shall burn the heifer in his sight; her skin, and her flesh, and her blood, with her dung, shall he burn: and the priest shall take cedar wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, and cast it into the midst of the burning of the heifer…” Numbers 19:1-9

A theme that is consistent throughout Chukkat is death. In this world, death appears to be the ultimate force. Death is the penalty for sin, without which death cannot operate.

“R. Ammi said: There is no death without sin, and there is no suffering without iniquity.” Shabbat 55a, Soncino Press Edition

This is exactly what Paul said in Romans,

“For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Messiah Yeshua our Lord.” Romans 6:23

The Zohar uses almost word for word language,

“R. Yesa said: Adam appears to every man at the moment of his departure from life to testify that the man is dying on account of his own sins and not the sin of Adam, according to the dictum, ‘there is no death without sin’. There are only three exceptions, namely, Amram, Levi, and Benjamin, who were deprived of life through the prompting of the primeval serpent; some add also, Jesse. These did not sin, and no ground could be assigned for their death save the prompting of the serpent, as we have said.” Zohar I:57b, Soncino Press Edition

One of the worst sins in the history of Israel, was the Egel HaZahav, the Golden Calf. The Rabbis noted a link between the Golden Calf and the Red Heifer:

“A maid’s child once dirtied the royal palace. Said the king: “Let his mother come and clean up her child’s filth.” By the same token, G-d says: “Let the Heifer atone for the deed of the Calf.” Midrash Tanchuma, cited at Chabad.org 

The Mishnah relates the location of the sacrifice,

“…the priest who was to burn the cow, the cow itself and all who aided in its preparation went forth to the Mount of Olives.” Mishnah, Parah 3:6, Soncino Press Edition

The Mishnah relates a fascinating tradition, although the Red Heifer was sacrificed ‘outside of the camp’, at the Mount of Olives, the priest could see the doors of the Temple,

“All the walls of the Temple were high except the Eastern Wall, so that the priest who burnt the Red Heifer might while standing on the top of the Mount of Olives by directing his gaze carefully see the door of the Heikhal, at the time of the sprinkling of the blood.” Mishnah, Middot 2, Soncino Press Edition

Amazingly, the Midrash connects the Mount of Olives to the withdrawal and ascension of the Shekhinah,

“Ten journeys were made by the Shechinah: from cherub to cherub, from the cherub to the threshold of the house, from the threshold of the house to the cherubim, from the cherubim to the east gate, from the east gate to the Court, from the Court to the roof, from the roof to the altar, from the altar to the wall, from the wall to the city [of Jerusalem], and from the city to the Mount of Olives. . . The Shechinah may be likened to a king who left his palace in anger. After going out, he came back and embraced and kissed the walls of the palace and its pillars . . . Similarly when the Shechinah went forth from the Temple, it returned and embraced and kissed its walls and pillars, and wept and said, ‘O the peace of the Temple, O the peace of My royal residence, O the peace of My beloved house! O peace, from now onward let there be peace!) . . . From the city to the Mount of Olives; for it is written, And the glory of the Lord went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the east side of the city (Ezek. 11:23).” Lamentations Rabbah Prologue 25, Soncino Press Edition

Interestingly, the Red Heifer has connections to the Passover Lamb,

“This refers to the statute of the Passover and the statute of the Red Heifer which are similar to one another, for in reference to the first it says: ‘This is the ordinance of the Passover, and in reference to the other it says: ‘This is the statute of the Law’ (Num. 19:2), moreover, one does not know which statute is greater than the other. It is like the case of two ladies who were walking side by side together apparently on a footing of equality. Who then is the greater? She whom her friend accompanies to her house and so is really following her. Similarly, in the case of the Passover we find ‘statute’, and in the case of the Red Heifer we also come across the word ‘statute’. Which then is the greater? The Red Heifer-for those who eat the Passover need its [purifying ashes], as it is said: And for the unclean they shall take of the ashes of the burning of the purification from sin.” Exodus Rabbah 14:2

The lamb’s blood was painted upon the doorposts using hyssop, which also forms a part of the cleansing ritual of the leper, as well as the Red Heifer,

“The hyssop, for instance, appears to man to be of no worth, yet its power is great in the eyes of God, who put it on a level with cedar in numerous cases,-in the purification of the leper, and the burning of the Red Heifer; and in Egypt too He commanded a precept to be performed with hyssop, as it says: AND YOU SHALL TAKE A BUNCH OF HYSSOP. Of Solomon, also, does it say: “And he spoke of trees, from the cedar that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springs out of the wall” (I Kings 5:13)- to teach you that the small and the great are equal in the sight of God. He performs miracles with the smallest things, and through the hyssop which is the most lowly of trees, did He redeem Israel.” Exodus Rabbah 17:2, Soncino Press Edition


In our study, Miriam dies. Israel was provided water by the Rock in her merit, and at her death, the water (mayim) ceased. Within the name of מרים, Miriam, are the letters for מים, mayim/water. The Midrash Rabbah cites a principle from the Talmud called מיתתן של צדיקים מכפרת mitatan shel tzaddikim mekapparet, in relation to the death of Miriam,

יב א״ר אבא בר אבינא מפני מה נסמכה פרשת מיתת מרים לאפר פרה אלא מלמד שכשם שאפר הפרה מכפר כך מיתת הצדיקים מכפרת
מדרש רבה ויקרא פרשה כ סימן יב
“R. Abba b. Abina enquired: For what reason was the section recording the death of Miriam placed in close proximity to that dealing with the ashes of the Red Heifer? Simply this, to teach that as the ashes of the Heifer effect atonement, so the death of the righteous effects atonement.” Leviticus Rabbah 20:12, Soncino Press Edition, cf. Moed Katan 28a

The Zohar comments on the Red Heifer,

“Sin is red, as it says, “Though your sins be as scarlet”; man puts the sacrificial animal on the fire, which is also red; the priest sprinkles the red blood round the altar, but the smoke ascending to heaven is white. Thus the red is turned to white. The attribute of Justice is turned into the attribute of Mercy. . . R. Issac said: ‘Red (blood) and white (fat) are offered for sacrifice, and the scent ascends from both. The spices of incense are in part red and in part white – frankincense is white, pure myrrh is red – and the scent ascends from red to white.” Zohar, Volume III, Shemoth 20b. Soncino Press Edition, pg. 67

The Sacrifice of the Red Heifer, and the Original Sin:

“Mortality was the price that man was to pay for Adam’s sin in the Garden of Eden. Had Adam not eaten from the Tree of Knowledge, the human lifespan would have been endless. Because of this grave transgression, Adam and his progeny were sentenced to death. This said, the Red Cow acts to repair the world and to restore it to its former glory of before the Original Sin.” R. Zalman Baruch Melamed, A Red Cow and a Golden Calf 

This is the mission of Messiah ben Yosef, as R’ Daniel Krentzman remarks,

“The need for the mission of Mashiach ben Yosef came about as result of the sin of Adam. In theory, had Adam not sinned and brought about tremendous spiritual damage to himself and the world, there would not have been a need for the tikun olam efforts of Mashiach ben Yosef, in every subsequent generation. Mashiach ben Yosef thus comes to rectify that damage and return mankind to the state of Adam before the sin.” Yonah the Navi as Mashiach ben Yosef, Daniel Krentzman, pg 10 

Speaking of the suffering of the Messiah, the Pesikta Rabbati says,

“The Holy One, blessed be He, will tell (the Messiah) what will befall him: ‘There are souls that have been put away with you under My throne, and it is their sins which will bend you down under a yoke of iron, and make you like a calf whose eyes grow dim with suffering, and will choke your spirit as with a yoke; because of the sins of these souls your tongue will cleave to the roof of your mouth. Are you willing to endure such things?…if your soul is sad at the prospect of your suffering, I shall at this moment banish these sinful souls.’ The Messiah will say: ‘Master of the universe, with joy in my soul and gladness in my heart I take this suffering upon myself, provided that not one person in Israel shall perish; that not only those who are alive be saved in my days, but that also those who are dead, who died from the days of Adam up to the time of redemption; and that not only these be saved in my days, but also those who died as abortions; and that not only these be saved in my days, but all those whom You thought to create but were not created. Such are the things I desire, and for these I am ready to take upon myself whatever you decree.’ At these words, the Holy One, blessed be He, will appoint for the Messiah the four creatures who will carry the Messiah’s throne of glory.” Pesikta Rabbati 36, Yale University Press, Translated by William G. Braude

The commentary to Likutey Moharan says,

“The Biur HaLikutim asks: If Moshe had reached such exalted levels, why is the residual punishment for the sin of the Golden Calf spread throughout the ages? . . . even Moshe was unable to totally expiate the sin and gain full forgiveness. This level will only be attained by Mashiach, who will erase sin and its effects completely.” Commentary to Likutey Moharan 4:7, Footnote 73, Volume 1, Breslov Research Institute, pg. 139


The book of Matthew says that Yeshua wore a scarlet robe,

“They put a scarlet robe around Him. And weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand. And they bowed the knee before Him and mocked Him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews!” Matthew 27:28-29

The Messiah takes the color red upon himself. The Book of Hebrews alludes to the Red Heifer, in application to Yeshua,

“For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside of the camp. Therefore Yeshua also, that he might sanctify the people through his own blood, suffered outside of the gate. Let us therefore go out to him outside of the camp, bearing his reproach. For we don’t have here an enduring city, but we seek that which is to come.” Hebrews 13:11-14

The Epistle of Barnabas makes the connection,

“The calf is Yeshua: the sinful men offering it are those who led Him to the slaughter. But now the men are no longer guilty, are no longer regarded as sinners. And the boys that sprinkle are those that have proclaimed to us the remission of sins and purification of heart. To these He gave authority to preach the Gospel, being twelve in number, corresponding to the twelve tribes of Israel.” Epistle of Barnabas 7:4


The Rambam says,

“Nine red heifers were prepared from the time that the Jewish people were commanded this mitzvah until the Second Temple was destroyed. The first was prepared by Moses, the second by Ezra, and another seven were prepared from Ezra until the Temple’s destruction. The tenth heifer will be prepared by Moshiach, may he speedily be revealed, Amen, may it be the will of G‑d.” Rambam, Mishneh Torah, cited at Chabad.org 

The Prophet Zechariah speaks of the return of the Presence to the Mount of Olives,

“For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle . . . Half of the city will go out into captivity, and the rest of the people will not be cut off from the city. Then YHVH will go out and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle. His feet will stand in that day on the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the Mount of Olives will be split in two, from east to west, making a very great valley. Half of the mountain will move toward the north, and half of it toward the south.” Zechariah 14:2-4

The Prophet Ezekiel also says,

“Afterward he brought me to the gate, even the gate that looks toward the east. Behold, the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east: and his voice was like the sound of many waters; and the earth shined with his glory. It was according to the appearance of the vision which I saw, even according to the vision that I saw when I came to destroy the city; and the visions were like the vision that I saw by the river Chebar; and I fell on my face. The glory of YHVH came into the house by the way of the gate whose prospect is toward the east. The Spirit took me up, and brought me into the inner court; and behold, the glory of YHVH filled the house. I heard one speaking to me out of the house; and a man stood by me. He said to me, Son of man, this is the place of my throne, and the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel forever. The house of Israel shall no more defile my holy name, neither they, nor their kings, by their prostitution, and by the dead bodies of their kings in their high places…” Ezekiel 43:1-7

Isaiah speaks of this day,

“Who is this who comes from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this who is glorious in his clothing, marching in the greatness of his strength? It is I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save.” Isaiah 63:1

The Ramchal, R’ Moshe Chaim Luzzato, comments on this passage,

…ועתה הנני מפרש לך סוד אחד חתום מאד והוא מה שכתוב מי זה בא מאדום וגוי [ישעיה סג, א] וכל זה הוא הצדיק, והוא משיח בן יוסף
“I will explain to you a certain sod which is completely sealed, and it concerns what is written, “Who is this who comes from Edom…’ (Yeshayahu 63:1). This is the Tzadik, and he is Mashiach ben Yosef.” Ramchal, Ma’amar HaGeulah, Secrets of the Redemption, Translated by R’ Mordecai Nissim, Feldheim Press, pg 118

Rebbe Nachman says,

“The Rebbe said there are seventy nations and all them are included in Esau and Ishmael: thirty-five under one and thirty-five under the other. In the future they will be conquered by two Messiahs, Mashiach the son of Joseph and Mashiach the son of David. There is one Tzaddik who is a combination of the two Messiahs. The Rebbe said a number of things over and above what was printed.” Chayyei Moharan 1:131, Tzaddik, translated by R’ Avraham Greenbaum, Breslov Research Institute, pg. 131

While Rebbe Nachman apparently applied the above to himself, this ultimately applies to Yeshua of Nazareth, the ultimate Tzaddik. The Mechilta says,

“The people spoke against G‑d and against Moses (21:5). It is written: “They believed in G‑d and in Moses His servant” (Exodus 14:31). If they believed even in Moses, they certainly believed in G‑d! But this comes to teach us that whoever believes in the shepherd of Israel, it is as though he believes in G‑d. In the same vein, it says, “The people spoke against G‑d and against Moses.” If they spoke even against G‑d himself, than certainly they spoke against Moses! But this comes to teach us that whoever speaks against the shepherd of Israel, it is as though he spoke against G‑d.” Mechilta Beshalach; Talmud, Sanhedrin 110a 

Numbers says,

“A pure man shall gather the ash of the cow…” Numbers 19:9

The Tzemach David states,

The Holy One, blessed be He, is called “a man who is clean who shall gather the ashes of the red heifer.” The ashes which need to be gathered symbolize Israel in exile. The explanation is that “the man who is clean” is none other than King Messiah. He is made unclean by the sicknesses and strokes that come upon him to atone for the iniquities of Israel, as it is said, ‘Surely our sicknesses he himself bore, and our sorrows he carried, yet we ourselves esteemed him stricken, smitten of God and afflicted.” Tzemach David, cited in Yalkhut Moshiach: Chukas 236-237, 103, citing Tanchuma Yashan 235, 101, cited in Torah Club, Shadows of the Messiah, Volume 4, First Fruits of Zion, pg. 818

The Baal HaTurim, R’ Yaakov ben Asher, also says of this connection

“He shall gather. The masoretic note, ’ג means that this word appears three times in the Tanach: (i) here, a pure man shall gather, (ii) and the metzora shall gather (2 Kings 5:11); (iii) And he will gather the castaways of Israel (Isaiah 11:12). [The similarity of the expression here and in Kings alludes to the Talmudic statement:] A metzora is likened to a corpse (Nedarim 64b). Moreover, just as the ashes of the red cow impart purity, so too, the prayers of the righteous impart purity. [And the similarity of expression in the three verses also alludes to the time of Mashiach:] And he will gather the castaways of Israel, in the future, at which time the metzora shall gather, i.e. will be cured, as it is written, Then the lame man will skip like a gazelle (Isaiah 35:6). And at that time, they will no longer need the ashes of the red cow, as it is written, He will have swallowed up death forever. (Isaiah 25:8)” Artscroll Baal HaTurim, Bamidbar 19, Mesorah Publishing Ltd. pg. 1585

Through the death of Yeshua, he has accomplished the death of death. He is the Red Heifer, who ascended from the Mount of Olives and b’ezrat HaShem will soon return. In the Amidah, the prayer for the return of the Shekhinah is as follows,

“V’techezenah eineinu b’shuvecha l’Tziyon b’rachamim. Baruch atah HaShem, hamachazir Sh’kinato l’Tziyon.” May our eyes behold Your return to Zion in compassion. Blessed are You, HaShem, Who restores His Presence to Zion.” Artscroll Siddur, Nusach Sefard, pg. 565

The Revelation of the Holy Snake

Since the dawn of mankind, the archetypal symbol of the serpent has coiled itself around the globe. Germinating in the fertile soil of the Ancient Near East, the serpent’s widespread popularity and presence in nearly all world mythology owes itself to the events surrounding the origin of mankind. A comparative study in world folklore reveals striking parallels, and common tangents to the Biblical account throughout variegated legends that all trace back to a singularity, the origin of the concept. These trails lead us to the most turbulent location on earth: the Land of Shinar, Ancient Babylon . . . Modern Day Iraq.

Mankind knew the history of the First Man, the cataclysmic deluge and the salvation of Noah on the Ark. According to the Midrash, united in rebellion under the blasphemous world dictator Nimrod, humanity attempted to challenge God by building a massive ziggurat, whose pinnacle reached to the sky, and perhaps could escape another flood. In response to mankind’s united revolt, the Creator confused their languages and divided world into seventy nations, scattering them throughout the four corners of the earth. The Hebrew word, “Bavel” itself means confusion, and is the origin of the English word, “babbling.” Each of the seventy nations took with them kernels of truth regarding their shared history, which in the evolution of their oral traditions and thought became mythologized in their stories and myths.

The Torah, however, gives us the real account of the events that occurred in the Garden of Eden. Genesis, records that the “serpent was more cunning that all the beasts of the field,” and entered into a conversation with Eve. It is important to note that he did not approach Adam directly, preferring rather to strike at the weakest point, like Amalek who attacked Israel from behind, assailing women, children and the infirm. The serpent questions the validity of God’s word, and subsequently tricks Eve into eating of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Adam, the ruler of the earth, seeing what his wife has done, follows suit in eating of the forbidden fruit, sinning against the Word of God. In doing so, he obeyed his wife who listened to the tempter, subjecting himself to the authority of the serpent. By this action, he essentially gave his crown of glory to the snake.

נחש = 358 = Nachash, Snake

We must ask ourselves why was the form of a snake chosen? Why not a cow or a donkey, a lion or a bear? In Hebrew the word for snake is nachash. This is etymologically related to the word for copper, nechoshet, which is a shiny metal. The skin of the serpent is mesmerizing, the shiny scales are dazzling. The old adage is ‘All that glitters is not gold’ fits nicely into this situation. This allure proved successful. Like a boa constrictor, the Satan solidified his grip upon the earth in dethroning Adam. This was the desire of the evil one, to exalt himself as king. As the Wisdom of Solomon says,

“Nevertheless through the jealousy of the devil death came into the world: and they that do hold of his side do find it.” Wisdom of Solomon 2:27


The idea of “original sin” is a cardinal doctrine of Christianity, and as a result seems foreign to Jewish thought. In fact, the misconception that this doctrine is alien to Judaism is so often repeated that it is accepted as fact. In order to break down the barriers of misunderstanding, we must return to the sources. In the New Testament, the Apostle Paul lays the theological foundation for the doctrine,

“Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned.” Romans 5:12

This statement was later added to and explained by non-Jewish church fathers such as Augustine of Hippo. When Augustine enunciated his understanding of ‘original sin’, he experienced opposition with the church fathers struggling with the idea, who eventually confirmed his views of massa damnata, (condemnation of the masses) to be referring to spiritual death. As a result, it became necessary to baptize infants to save them from hell. All of this comes from a gentile misunderstanding of the Bible.

To properly understand the Biblical concept of “original sin” we must strip away the later Christian accretions, and return to the core of the doctrine that Paul taught. Where did Paul learn this? Did he invent this dogma, or did he learn this from his teachers? To find the answer, we must not look to the Church Fathers. We must look to the Rabbis. We must return to the Jewish soil from which Paul grew.

The term ‘original sin’ never occurs in the Bible. It should not be surprising then that one cannot find the doctrine of original sin developed in Jewish theology under that title. Rather, the parallel concept in Judaism is called, ‘The Counsel of the Serpent.’ As the Targum to Ruth illustrates,

“Now Oved begot Jesse, who was called Nahash, because no corruption and perversion, for which he might be delivered into the hands of the angel of death, who would take his life from him, were found in him. He lived a long time, until the serpent’s counsel to Eve, Adam’s wife, to partake of the fruit of the tree, the eating of which resulted in wisdom to distinguish between good and evil, was recalled before God. Because of that counsel, all inhabitants of the earth are mortal, and as a result of that blunder, the righteous Jesse died. He is Jesse, who was the father of David, the king of Israel.” Targum Ruth 4:22, Translated by Samson H. Levy

An illuminating account is recorded in the Midrash Rabbah, where Moshe is at the close of his life, and is speaking with HaShem,

“Moses pleaded: ‘ Master of the Universe, there are thirty-six transgressions punishable by extinction enumerated in the Torah, for the commission of any one of which a man is liable to be put to death. Have I then transgressed any one of them? Why do You decree death upon me? God replied: You are to die because of the sin of the first man who brought death into the world.” Deuteronomy Rabbah 9:9, Soncino Press Edition

This text is not only linguistically but theologically similar, illustrating the exact point of Paul in 1st Corinthians,

“For since death came through a man, also the resurrection of the dead has come through a man. For just as in connection with Adam all die, so in connection with the Messiah all will be made alive.” 1 Corinthians 15:21-22

The Talmud brilliantly looks into the problem of suffering and death without sin, and eventually ascribes suffering and death in the world to the serpent,

“Our Rabbis taught: Four died through the counsel of the serpent, namely, Benjamin son of Jacob, Amram the father of Moses, Jesse the father of David, and Kilab the son of David.” Baba Batra 17a, Soncino Press Edition, Cf. Shabbat 55b

The Soncino footnote explains the meaning of the phrase “the counsel of the serpent,”

“The counsel given by the serpent to Eve, which brought death on all mankind, and not for any sin they themselves committed. [The reference is to physical death only and is thus not to be confused with the doctrine of “original sin” involving the condemnation of the whole human race to a death that is eternal.]” Soncino Footnote to Baba Batra 17a

Note that the concept is so similar that the Soncino translators have to caution the reader not to confuse this passage with the doctrine of ‘original sin’. Then they go on to explain what the doctrine of ‘original sin’ is, which involves the ‘condemnation of the whole human race to a death that is eternal.” This view belongs to Augustine, not to Paul. The Zohar comments on this passage in the Talmud,

“For, indeed, “there is not a righteous man upon earth that does good and sins not” (Eccl. 7:20). And even the sinless ones who only died because of the “counsel of the Serpent” will arise and be counselors to the Messiah.” Zohar II:54a, Soncino Press Edition

The Soncino commentators then make an interesting statement,

“Benjamin, Amram, Yishai, and Kaleb, David’s son, were sinless and died not for their own sins, but because of the “serpent’s counsel”, i.e. of “original sin]” Soncino Footnote to Zohar II:54a

Now the Soncino translators describe the phrase “counsel of the serpent” as “original sin”. There is actually no contradiction between the Soncino commentary on the Talmud and the Soncino commentary on the Zohar. It is “original sin” but not the Augustinian version of it. The Talmud and the Zohar’s interpretations of “original sin” are in absolute harmony with the Pauline concept described in the New Testament. Man has brought death into the world by allowing himself to be bitten by sin, and it is the poison of the serpent that has spread itself throughout the Soul of Adam, as Paul states,

“For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Messiah Yeshua our Lord.” Romans 6:23

The Zohar uses almost word for word language,

“R. Yesa said: Adam appears to every man at the moment of his departure from life to testify that the man is dying on account of his own sins and not the sin of Adam, according to the dictum, ‘there is no death without sin’. There are only three exceptions, namely, Amram, Levi, and Benjamin, who were deprived of life through the prompting of the primeval serpent; some add also, Jesse. These did not sin, and no ground could be assigned for their death save the prompting of the serpent, as we have said.” Zohar I:57b, Soncino Press Edition

The Jewish Encyclopedia summarizes the various texts related to Adam’s downfall,

“The sin of Adam, according to the Rabbis, had certain grievous results for him and for the earth. The Shekinah left earth after his fall (Gen. Rabbah 19.; Tanchuma Pekudei, 6). He himself lost his personal splendor, deathlessness, and gigantic stature (see Adam). All men were doomed thenceforth to die; none not even the most just, might escape the common fate: the old temptation of the serpent suffices to bring on death (B. B. 17a; Shab 55b).” Jewish Encyclopedia, Fall of Man

The brilliant scholar of Jewish mysticism, Gershom Scholem, concludes that this not only affected all of humanity, but also the entire world,

Since Adam was truly, and not merely metaphorically, all-embracing, his fall was bound likewise to drag down and affect everything. . . ” Gershom Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, pg. 279

The Biala Rebbe states,

“Bnei Yisrael were susceptible to the arrogance of Egypt, only because the seeds of arrogance that had already been planted within them by Adam’s sin. Since the souls of all mankind were included in Adam’s soul, we were all party to his sin, and we are all still marked by its effect. Through our Torah and mitzvos, we strive to correct Adam’s sin, which sullied the entire human race with arrogance. . . The ultimate perfection of human character will occur with the coming of Moshiach, when Adam’s sin of arrogance will be entirely corrected. In this merit, we will finally be able to understand the deepest secrets of the Torah, of which the Midrash states: “The Torah that man learns in this world is like mist compared to the Torah that will be taught by Moshiach.” Mevaser Tov, The Biala Rebbe, Sefirat HaOmer, pg. 251


In his introduction to Sefer Tomer Devorah, R’ Dov HaKohen Fink, recounts the life of the Ramak (R’ Moshe Cordevero),

“The Ramak was born around 1522…In the last year of his life, the Arizal came to Sefad, studied under him and considered the Ramak as his teacher. He passed away at the age of forty-eight on the 23rd of Tamuz, 1570. In his eulogy, the Arizal applied the verse (Devorim 21:22) “וכי יהיה באיש חטא משפט מות והומת ותלית אותו על עץ” [Lit. If there will be a man deserving the death penalty, he shall be killed and hung on a wooden pole.] He interpreted it to mean, that if there is a man who is free of all sin, and therefore, does not deserve to die, and he dies, then attribute his demise solely to the sin of the ‘Tree’ [from which Adam ate].” Forward to Tomer Devorah, Rabbi Dov HaKohen Fink, Tomer Publications, pg 5

Of R’ Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov (Besht), it is said he did not partake of this sin,

“They say that once, when all souls were gathered in Adam’s soul, at the hour he stood beside the Tree of Knowledge, the soul of the Baal Shem Tov went away, and did not eat of the fruit of the tree.” Tales of the Hasidim, Early Masters, retold by Martin Buber pg. 35

The fall of Adam was the most cataclysmic event of human history. This one act of rebellion is the source of all death, wars, disease and famine that has ravaged the earth. So it is without little wonder that the serpent is one of the most reviled creatures on earth. The reptilian, fork-tongued, slithery creature is the iconic symbol of evil, deceit and Satan. As we see in Genesis,

“And I will put hatred between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed. He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel.” Genesis 3:15

This famous passage is a well-known Messianic prophecy. The Targum (an ancient Aramaic interpretive translation) on this passage also identifies this as a messianic prophecy,

“And it shall be when the sons of the woman consider the Torah, and perform (its) instructions, they will be prepared to smite you on your head to kill you. But when the sons of the woman forsake the commandment of the Torah, and perform not (its) instructions, you will be ready to wound them in their heel, and hurt them. Nevertheless there shall be a medicine for the sons of the woman, but for you, serpent, there shall be no medicine. However, for these there shall be a remedy for the heel in the days of the king Meshiha.” Targum Jonathan on Genesis 3:15


In Chukkat (Numbers 19:1–22:1), we read of an another incident of snake poison, that that occurred in the Wilderness of Zin,

“And the people spoke against God and against Moses/ Moshe, “Why did you bring us up from Egypt to die in the wilderness? There is no bread, neither is there any water! And our soul loathes this worthless bread. And YHVH sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and many people of Israel died.” Numbers 21:5-6

God judged the people with the fiery serpents, and many died. This caused Israel to repent, and like the Targum says God will provide the cure in “the days of King Meshiha,” so too here, YHVH provides the cure,

“Therefore the people came to Moshe and said, “We have sinned, for we have spoken against YHVH , and against you. Pray to YHVH , that he take away the serpents from us. And Moshe prayed for the people. And YHVH said to Moshe, “Make yourself a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole, and it shall come to pass, that whoever has been bitten, when he looks upon it, shall live. And Moshe made a serpent of copper, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of copper, he lived.” Numbers 21:7-9

This is one of the most unusual accounts in the Torah. At first glance, it would seem to imply some type of magical property was invested in this copper serpent. In fact, archaeological excavations in the ancient Yemeni city of Timna, modern day Beihan as Qisab, have unearthed copper serpents, probably used as healing idols of sorts. Perhaps this story, like the myths of creation, disseminated into the nations, surfacing in well known symbols today such as the Rod of Asclepius and the caduceus. Both of these symbols are used in the medical field today, although the caduceus is used mistakenly so. The Rod of Asclepius is even used as the logo of the American Medical Association. In truth, however, it was not the serpent that healed, but God, when an Israelite believed the word spoken to Moshe. It was by emunah (faith), as the Wisdom of Solomon states,

“For when the horrible fierceness of beasts came upon them, and they perished with the stings of crooked serpents, your wrath did not endure forever. Although they were troubled for a small season, that they might be admonished, they had a sign of salvation, to make them remember the commandments of your Torah. For he that turned himself toward it was not saved by the thing that he saw, but by You, because you are the Savior of all. . . . For you have power of life and death: You lead to the gates of Sh’ol, and bring up again.” Wisdom of Solomon 16:5-13

Like the Copper Serpent, ancient Jewish literature records a belief of healing a fatal snake bite from another source: The Name of Yeshua.

ר’ אלעזר בן דמה שנשכו נחש, ובא יעקב איש כפר סמא לרפאותו משם של ישו פנדירא, ולא הניח לו ר’ ישמעאל
“R. Eleazar b. Damah was bitten by a snake. And Jacob of Kefar Sama came to heal him in the name of Jesus[16]…and R. Ishmael did not allow him [to accept the healing]. They said to him, “You are not permitted [to accept healing from him] ben Dama.” He said to him, “I shall bring you proof that he may heal me.” But he did not have time to bring the [promised] proof before he dropped dead.” Tosefta, Hullin 2:22, translated by Jacob Neusner, Hendrickson Publishers, pg. 1380, Cf. b. Avodah Zarah 27b, Jerusalem Talmud, Shabbat 1:4, Ecclesiastes Rabbah 1:24, 7:39

The book of Acts says Paul experienced something similar on the island of Malta,

“The natives showed us uncommon kindness; for they kindled a fire, and received us all, because of the present rain, and because of the cold. But when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks and laid them on the fire, a viper came out because of the heat, and fastened on his hand. When the natives saw the creature hanging from his hand, they said one to another, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he has escaped from the sea, yet Justice has not allowed to live.However he shook off the creature into the fire, and wasn’t harmed.” Acts 28:2-5


In Hebrew, every letter is also a number. Thus different combinations of different Hebrew letters yield different numerical results. The Torah is thus revealed not only as a historical, or theological document, but also mathematical. This is called Gematria. There are numerous forms of gematria, methods of determining mathematical values of Hebrew words and phrases. There are also methods called chilufei otiyot, or letter exchanges. These ciphers are code systems involving exchanging certain letters for others. The most well known form of chilufei otiyot is called atbash. Expressed in English terms, this would involve exchanging the letter ‘A’ for ‘Z’, the letter ‘B’ for ‘Y’, and so forth. The first becomes last, the second becomes the second to last.

With this understanding in mind, an illuminating story regarding the nature of the very word sin is told…

“The Kabbalists tell us that at one time the Hebrew word for “sin” was san which consists of two letters, samekh and nun. The samekh is for the word sam “poison” and the letter nun is for nahash “snake.” Thus sin was personified as “poisonous snake.” Heaven on your Head, Rabbi S.Z. Kahana, Research Centre of Kabbalah, pg. 234

The story continues that Satan entered a dispute with God, claiming that man cannot truly have free will if the word for sin resembles a “poisonous snake.” So God, using atbash system, reversed the letters on the Hebrew alephbet, leaving the word comprised of the letters Chet, and Tet. However, God decided to add the letter Aleph, to remind man that he is created in His Image.


In the Torah, the staff of Moshe becomes the instrument of salvation for the Hebrews. In an unusual passage, YHVH changes the staff of Moshe into a snake:

“And YHVH said unto him, “What is that in your hand? And he said, “A rod.” And he said, “Cast it on the ground.” And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent, and Moses fled from before it. And YHVH said to Moshe, “Put forth your hand, and take it by the tail.” And he put forth his hand and caught it and it became a rod in his hand.” Exodus 4:2-4

In a fascinating comment, the Zohar likens the rod of Moshe to “Metatron“, who is the Divine Angel of YHVH,

“The rod of the God” is Matatron, who has life on one side and death on the other, AS HE CHANGES FROM A SERPENT TO A ROD AND FROM A ROD TO A SERPENT.” Zohar, Vol I:262, Beresheet A, Kabbalah Centre

Rebbe Nachman comments,

“If he violates the Torah, he drinks from the bitterness of the Tree of Evil, which is the Evil Inclination…but if he repents, it is said of him: “God showed him a tree” – the Tree of Life – through which “the water turned sweet” (Exodus 15:25). This is Moshe-Mashiach, of whom it is said: “with the mateh (staff) of God in my hand ” (Exodus 17:9). MaTeh is MeTat, from whom comes life and also death.” Likutey Moharan 79:3, Breslov Research Institute, pg 165


In the thirteenth century, a Jewish mystic named Rabbi ben Jacob HaCohen likened the Messiah to a snake. At first glance, it seems totally antithetical to liken the sinless Redeemer to the archetypal symbol of evil. Yet, in mystical Judaism the Messiah is “The Holy Snake.” This is derived from the fact that the Hebrew word, Mashiach (Messiah), has the gematria of 358, equivalent to nachash, snake. We see that Moshe’s staff that became a snake swallows up the snakes of Egypt, which is an earthly pattern of things in the Heavenly Realm.

Rabbi Yitzchak Ginsburg of the Gal Einai Institute states,

“Just as Amalek represents the epitome of evil, so does the positive snake represent the epitome of good. Mashiach himself is referred to as “the holy snake,” as alluded to by the phenomenon that the numerical value of Mashiach (358) is the same as that of the word for “snake” (nachash). In the Zohar it is told that when the holy snake, Mashiach, will kill the evil snake (overcome the fear of insanity), he will thereby merit to marry the Divine princess, to unite with the origin of the souls of Israel and so to bring redemption to the world.” Rabbi Yitzchak Ginsburg, Kabbalah and the Healing of the Soul – Part 35 – The Snake 

The Ramchal writes,

“And from then onwards this characteristic of appearing in the mystical capacity of a snake is given to the Messiah, especially to MBY, who is the mystical embodiment of the left…Since then the tikun has been prepared in the mystical mission of the two Messiahs…for the Messiah ben Joseph mystically represents the left, and he bears the character of the exterior which needs all these tikunim, and the Messiah ben David mystically represents the right which needs to be joined to it [the left], and the Redemption will be complete.” R’ Moshe Hayyim Luzzato, Kinat HaShem Tzevaot 20, cited in Messianic Mystics, Moshe Idel, Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, pg 238

The gematria values of the words Mashiach and nachash imply a connection between the two, and reveal the secret of this passage in Exodus. When the fiery serpents were biting and bringing death to the Israelites in the desert, God commanded Moshe to make a symbol of a bronze serpent, and lift it up, and everyone who looked to it would be saved (Numbers 21:5-9). This was a precursor to the crucifixion of the Holy Snake, the Mashiach, as the Master Himself says,

“As Moshe lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up. That whosoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life.” John 3:14-15

Let us examine the Exodus account of the Moshe-Pharoah encounter more closely,

וַיִּבְלַע מַטֵּֽה־אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מַטֹּתָֽם
“And Moshe and Aaron went to Pharaoh, and they did as YHVH had commanded. Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent. Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers. Now the magicians of Egypt also did in like manner with their enchantments. For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents. But Aaron’s rod swallowed up (vayivla) their rods.” Exodus 7:10-12

The Hebrew word for “swallow up” is vayivla, and is the same root word in Isaiah 25:8. This word connects the two verses and unlocks the plan of redemption. As Moshe’s staff-turned-snake swallowed up the evil serpents, so will the Messiah swallow up death! And whoever looks to the Son of Man, will be saved. The King Messiah is hidden in every jot and tittle of the Torah, and the plan of salvation is revealed in its words.

The eternal life, spoken of here, is a fulfillment of all of the prophets,

בִּלַּע הַמָּוֶת לָנֶצַח וּמָחָה אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה דִּמְעָה מֵעַל כָּל־פָּנִים וְחֶרְפַּת עַמֹּו יָסִיר מֵעַל כָּל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃
“He will swallow up (bila) death in victory! YHVH will wipe away tears from all faces, and shall take away the rebuke of his people from all the earth, for YHVH has spoken it.” Isaiah 25:8

The Midrash Rabbah interprets this verse as a messianic prophecy,

“…when God created His world, there was no Angel of Death in the world…Messiah would arise, and in his days God would cause death to be swallowed up, as it says, He will swallow up death forever.” Exodus Rabbah 30:3, Soncino Press Edition

The Zohar reveals the identity of the Rod of Moshe in a jaw dropping statement,

“…the staff given to you will be a Tree of Life – denoting Vav, which is the son of Yud Hei.” Zohar, Exodus, Mispatim 384 

Upon the execution stake, the King Messiah defeated death. Three days later, He arose from the dead…in the Garden. He first appears to Miryam of Magdala as the Gardener.

“Yeshua said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping? Who are you looking for?” She, supposing him to be the gardener, said to him, “Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away.” John 20:15

Why does John include the unusual detail that she supposed him “to be the gardener”? The answer is found in Genesis,

“YHVH planted a garden eastward, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed.” Genesis 2:8

As Adam is formed from the dust of the earth, so is the Son of Man raised from the dust. The Messiah is the ‘Gardener’ who desires to be close to us, and walk with us again. The Messiah speaks with the woman alone in the garden to bring tikkun for the snake speaking with the first woman in the garden. Now The Holy Messiah has reversed the curse and will return us to the Garden of Eden. The Holy Snake has crushed the head of the primeval serpent, and he has destroyed death.

“I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared like a bride adorned for her husband. I heard a loud voice out of heaven saying, “Behold, God’s dwelling is with people, and he will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them as their God. He will wipe away from them every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; neither will there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain, any more. The first things have passed away. He who sits on the throne said, “Behold, I am making all things new.” Revelation 21:2-5

אנכי התקומה והחיים
“I am the resurrection, and the life. he that believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live. And whosoever lives and believes in me shall never die.” John 11:25-26

Amen and Amen.

Read the Psalms Every Week

Sunday- 1-29 
Monday- 30-50 
Tuesday- 51-72 
Wednesday- 73-89 

Thursday- 90-106
Friday- 107-119 
Saturday- 120-150